Asphalt Wiki


Ambox content
This page uses LaTeX markup to display mathematical formulas. Editing the page with the VisualEditor or Classic rich-text editor disrupts the layout.
Do not even switch to one of these editors while editing the page!
For help with mathematical symbols, see Mathematical symbols and expressions.

In probability theory, two events are independent if the occurrence of one does not affect the probability of occurrence of the other. Similarly, two random variables are independent if the realization of one does not affect the probability distribution of the other.


Two events and are independent if and only if their joint probability equals the product of their probabilities:

Why this defines independence is made clear by rewriting with conditional probabilities:


and similarly


Thus, the occurrence of does not affect the probability of , and vice versa. Although the derived expressions may seem more intuitive, they are not the preferred definition, as the conditional probabilities may be undefined if or are 0. Furthermore, the preferred definition makes clear by symmetry that when is independent of , is also independent of .

See also[]